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Sustainable Electricity
The Search For Sydney Water .



Sustainable Electricity

You use it or you lose it or you store it... or you make it yourself.

Battery back-up is a good place to start. The importance of saving and conserving water is a new reality that we will have to embrace until some time in the future we can make it in abundance. The same goes for electricity. Leaner cleaner technology will be more eco friendly, and excess electricity unless it is being stored for later is going down the drain. You use it or you lose it or you store it... or you make it with solar wind or you can peddle.

Like re-cycled water, we could direct unused energy into a battery.

Up until now there has only been pumped storage hydro to store
electricity - at around 80% efficiency the on-demand advantage outways the energy losses, but it's a very expensive operation that usually takes years to accomplish. Basically, pumped storage acts like a giant battery storing the energy for use later.

So much of todays technology like computers and iPods depend upon batteries, and we are very familiar with how they lose their power and re-charging affects battery life - their pretty heavy and not so eco friendly. I found the biggest battery in the world in Alaska with
BESS 27 MegaWatts for 15 minutes or so which is enough time to keep balanced the grid. BESS balances the load by filling in the 15 minute gap - to start backup after failure - thus maintaining a good steady supply.

If a renewable battery storage was found for electricity that was more
convenient than hydro, cheaper to make quicker to build but was relatively clean like hydro - the usually wasted energy becomes easier to manage, easier to save, and somewhat "extra" because we can use it later - we save energy overnight to use it the next day when we need it most.

So off I went around the world only to find it in my backyard.

I'm a great believer in the networked systems like the internet. The design maintains there is a path that will get you to your destination even if whole chunks are missing. I think the same can be done for electricity and water.

Supplying electricity for 15 minutes and then requiring a re-charge doesn't seem like much benefit, but in the Canadian climate, it does eleviate everything from freezing over. It doesn't compare to hydro which could supply 8 hours of continuous electricity but it does herald a new concept of infrastructure.

Networked systems like the internet are built upon many small computers and together they are very
large in total capacity. It is the same for electricity and water. Individuals who have tanks that collect rain or recycle water form the beginnings of the mitachondria infrastructure of the future.

The old iron and acid makes a last gasp for supremacy, but the flow cell is taking over.
The Vanadium Bromide Redox Battery from the University Of New South Wales.
From what I understand, it is close to 100% rechargeable and recyclable - sounds very Electric Eco to me.
    • Redox Flow Batteries are only batteries that allow BOTH electrical recharge and “instant” recharge by mechanical refueling.
    • Spent solutions can be recharged overnight with off-peak power.
    • Eliminates need for new power stations to meet increased load from electric cars.




VRB
Vanadium Redox Flow Battery
An Historical Overview of the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Development at the University of New South Wales, Australia

by

Maria Skyllas-Kazacos
 School of Chemical Engineering & Industrial Chemistry,

University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AUSTRALIA 2052

   
FLOW CELLS
The Redox Flow Cell is an electrochemical system which allows energy to be stored in two solutions containing different redox couples with electrochemical potentials sufficiently separated from each other to provide an electromotive force to drive the oxidation-reduction reactions needed to charge and discharge the cell. Unlike conventional batteries, the redox flow cell stores energy in the solutions, so that the capacity of the system is determined by the size of the electrolyte tanks, while the system power is determined by the size of the cell stacks. The redox flow cell is therefore more like a rechargeable fuel cell than a battery.
 
http://www.ceic.unsw.edu.au/centers/vrb/


    

Batteries for Load leveling and distributed power systems.


  
     
   





2 VRB  load-levelling installations in Japan:
• 200 kW/800 kWh VRB at Kashima-Kita  Power Station

• 500  kW/1 MW VRB at Kansai Power Station  (built by SEI)

• Energy  Efficiency of 80%






    



2003
Tasmania commissions storage system

Pinnacle VRB, a VRB Power Systems subsidiary, announced that it has commissioned the King Island Vanadium Redox Battery Energy Storage System (VRB/EES) at a Hydro Tasmania site in Australia.

The VRB/EES will smooth the short term output variations in wind generators and customer loads while providing frequency and voltage control. It will also implement a system of load shifting for a diesel-wind hybrid generation system.

King Island, a remote Island off the south coast of Australia operates five wind turbines ranging from 250 to 850 kW along with four 1.5 MW diesel generators. These units supply power to local residents and form part of Hydro Tasmania's Renewable Energy Expansion Project.

-

 To date, flow batteries have mainly been used to assist with load levelling for substations and in buildings or in small isolated storage systems. Using them as part of King Island's overall power grid will be the first use of the technology in large-scale remote power supply systems and an excellent opportunity to showcase Australian innovative research and development.

 The project also incorporates the investigation of demand side management to optimise energy efficiency and reduce system peaks.

 The projected savings from the batteries and overall control system amount to 2800MWh per annum. Hydro Tasmania anticipates that, in addition to substantially reducing the island's dependence on diesel, the project will cut greenhouse emissions by a total of 2000 tonnes of CO2 per annum when fully operational.
 
http://www.greenhouse.gov.au/renewable/recp/enabling/three.html





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